Vol. 18, No. 6 November / December 2002  Issue Select 
Issue Details
Cover Title: Monkey Motion
Cover Subtitle: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Steam Locomotive Valve Gear
On the Cover: No caption. Close-up of the drivers and main rod of a steam locomotive.
Articles In This Issue
Monkey Motion / Everything you ever wanted to know about valve gear - Ed King
  Drawing Slide Valve or D valve (Outside admission) Piston Valve (Inside admission)
  Photo N&W's Class G-1 2-8-0 had slide valves actuated by Stephenson valve gear. The flat-top valve chest is the giveaway; the Stephenson rocker arm is hidden by the guide yoke. Shown here at Roanoke in July, 1934 (a month when many of her younger, more powerful sisters were retired due to the Great Depression), the 302 sports a plow pilot, dirty extra flags, and the "broad-shouldered" Belpaire firebox common on 19th century N&W power. Built in Roanoke in 1892 as No. 358 and renumbered in 1926, she lived to be sold to the U.S. Government in 1944. (Vollrath Collection, but probably an N&W photo)
  Photo Class U 4-6-0 was built by Baldwin in 1892 as a Vauclain Compound. The Vauclain system used a double-ported piston valve on each side to serve both the high- and low-pressure cylinders. When rebuilt beginning in 1897 as simple engines, the U's were among the first engines on the continent to use piston valves to actuate simple cylinders. (The mighty Pennsylvania Railroad didn't undertake a test application of piston valves until 1905 when N&W already had more than 100 locomotives on the property so equipped.) Here's the 77 at Roanoke after rebuilding; her Stephenson valve gear rocker arm appears right behind the crosshead. Like her contemporary 302, she has the Belpaire firebox. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Photo Universal Valves of Southern Railway Ks-class 2-8-0 753, a post-construction "bolt-on" conversion kit to adapt the Consolidation from slide to piston valves, are actuated by an odd arrangement of Walschaerts outside admission direct valve gear wherein combination lever behind crosshead is necessary because of use of rocker arm to get the valve gear motion to the inboard vertical plane of the valve. Point of connection of combination lever and radius rod is the dead giveaway that these valves are outside admission; the eccentric crankpin leads the main crankpin. Built by Alco's Richmond Works as a saturated engine in 1905, the 753 was subsequently superheated, necessitating the change to piston valves, and remained on the roster unti/1952. Southern's K-class 2-8-0s equipped with either slide or Universal valves and several types of valve gears were fixtures in Bristol. (Frank E. Ardrey, Jr. Photo)
  Drawing Stephenson Valve Gear
  Drawing Direct Walschaert Valve Gear
  Photo High Pressure Engine: Rear engine of Norfolk and Western 0-8-8-0 990 has indirect Walschaerts. Her high-pressure engine has inside admission piston valves - note connection of radius rod above valve rod connection - but the eccentric crankpin leads the main crankpin. When the locomotive is in forward motion, the link block will be above the link pivot point to reverse the movement of the valve - the crankpin leads but the valve's motion must follow the main crankpin. The 990 has a primitive early power reverse mechanism, as evidenced by the two cylinders (oil and air) with their linkage under the front of the cab. Low Pressure Engine: Front engine also has indirect Walschaerts. Her low-pressure engine has slide valves which must be outside admission - note connection of radius rod below valve rod connection - but the eccentric crankpin follows the main crankpin. When the 990 is in forward motion, the link block will be above the pivot point - the eccentric crankpin follows but the motion must lead the main crankpin. Having indirect valve gear was seen by some to be an advantage for an engine in mountain service; in case of a loss of air causing a runaway, the valve gears could be lowered into reverse, thereby helping retard the train. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Photo High Pressure Engine: N&W's first 2-8-8-2s have inside-admission piston valves on the high-pressure rear cylinders actuated by Walschaerts valve gear. Note that the eccentric crankpin follows the main crankpin, and that the radius rod is connected to the combination lever above the valve rod connection; this is direct Walschaerts valve gear, by far the most common configuration. In forward motion, the link block will be below the link pivot point. The 999 has an ingenious valve stem support attached to the upper crosshead guide. Y-1s had an early form of Ragonnet power reverse gear. Low Pressure Engine: Has outside-admission piston valves on the low-pressure front cylinders also actuated by Walschaerts valve gear. Note that the eccentric crankpin follows the main crankpin as on the rear engine, but the radius rod is connected to the combination lever below the valve rod connection; this is indirect Walschaerts valve gear. In order that the motion of the out- side-admission valve leads the motion of the main crankpin, the link block will be above the pivot point when the engine is in forward motion. Having one engine with direct and the other engine with indirect Walschaerts was evidently an effort to balance the weights of the radius rods and link blocks and thus make reversing an easier task. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Photo High Pressure Engine: Norfolk and Western's first 2-6-6-2 has indirect Walschaerts valve gear on the inside-admission piston valve rear high-pressure cylinders; note that the eccentric crankpins lead the main crankpins, and also that the radius rod is connected to the combination lever above the valve rod. The 1308 is shown here in forward motion - the radius rod is above the link pivot point. On the right side, the 1308 has the same air-oil power assist for the reverse as used on the X-1 0-8-8-0; a reverse shaft passed across the engine to connect the high-pressure reversing bell cranks to actuate the mechanism on the left side. Low Pressure Engine: Has direct Walschaerts valve gear on the slide-valve front low-pressure cylinders; note that as on the high-pressure engine the eccentric crankpins lead the main crankpins, and also that the radius rod is connected to the combination lever below the valve rod. The 1308 is shown here in forward motion - the radius rod is below the link pivot point. Note the long lifting link attached to a bell crank mounted on the side of the boiler; a reach rod went back to the bell crank for the rear engine's lifting link. This long lifting link had u-joints at top and bottom to allow for lateral movement of the low-pressure engine in curves. The Z-1's direct low-pressure indirect high-pressure arrangement is the opposite of the indirect low-pressure direct high-pressure setup of the Y-1. (N&W Photo, N&WHS Archives Collection)
  Photo Class E-2 Pacific 578 new at Richmond Locomotive Works in 1910, equipped with inside-admission Baker-Pilliod Valve Gear. Note the short eccentric throw and the long union link to the combination lever which is located almost at the rear of the valve gear frame. The E-2s were some of the first locomotives on the N&W with electric headlights, the first with outside-bearing trailer trucks, and the first with any form of valve gear other than Stephenson or Walschaerts. All the E-2s were later superheated and converted to long-frame Baker Valve Gear, and reclassed E-2a along with later sisters equipped with superheaters when built. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Drawing Baker-Pilliod Valve Gear
  Drawing Direct Baker Valve Gear
  Photo N&W's original Pacifics, class E engines 595-599 of 1905, had piston valves driven by valve gear. All were converted to Baker with the rocker arm, and the combination lever hung from the bell crank; their valves were more inboard than those of the Ws and Ms. They retained the E-class designation. The 581 shown here was one of 15 later models delivered with Walschaerts valve gear and classed E-1. There is evidence that suggests that the 581 may at one time have had a test application of Southern valve gear, which was patented in 1912, but no photograph of the engine so equipped has yet surfaced. If the engine indeed had Southern valve gear, the experiment was short-lived and she wound up with Baker as shown here. The 581 was then classed as "E" to match the other Baker-equipped "small" Pacifics, the only former E-1 so reclassed. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Photo High Pressure Engine: The rear engine of the Y-2 2-8-8-2 has direct Baker with the triangular gear frame. Connection of radius (or valve rod of Baker gear) rod above valve stem on the combination lever is a giveaway that the high-pressure piston-valve cylinders are inside admission. Note that the eccentric crankpin follows the main crankpin as on the lead engine. This arrangement of Baker served all subsequent N&W 2-8-8-2s up through the 2200 on both high and low pressure engines. Low Pressure Engine: The front engine of the loco- motive has indirect Baker with combination lever hung from the valve stem, a rare application. Connection of radius (or valve rod of Baker gear) rod below valve stem on the combination lever is giveaway that the low-pressure piston-valve cylinders are outside admission. Note that the eccentric crankpin follows the main crankpins as on the high-pressure engine. The radius rod passes behind the gear-connecting rod to connect with the bell crank. 1700's boiler bearing slide with its spring centering arrangement can be seen aft of the valve gear hanger; also evident is the long reversing reach rod from the reverse arm at the rear of the front engine. When 1700 was rebuilt to Y-2a, her low-pressure cylinders were replaced with inside-admission and her valve gear replaced with the triangular-frame direct version like that on her rear engine. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Photo Low Pressure Engine: The front engine of 2-6-6-2 1380 shows the flat-top slide-valve steam chests and indirect Baker Valve Gear. Note that the eccentric crankpin follows the main crankpin as on the rear engine. Note also that the gear connecting rod is ahead of the bell crank; when the combination lever was hung from the bell crank a very long union link was required. The combination lever hangs between the eccentric rod and the main rod. The 1380 was never converted to Z-1b, and carried this arrangement until her retirement in August 1953. High Pressure Engine: The rear engine has direct Baker Valve Gear with the long frame to actuate its inside-admission piston valves. The combination lever hangs from the bell crank, and it will be noted that the gear-connecting rod is aft of the bell crank. The eccentric crankpin follows the main crankpin.  (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Photo The 549 was one of ten Pacifics (543-552) built by Roanoke in 1914 with Hobart-Allfree cylinders and classed E-2b. As noted in the text, no drawings or diagrams of these cylinders have surfaced and from the side view and other action views of E-2bs, there seems to be little or no difference in the external appearance of the cylinders. Some aspect of the application, however, required a different location of the valve stem enabling the combination lever to be ahead of the crosshead and hung from a traveler which moved on a guide below the valve stem. Normal E-2a Baker Valve Gear hung the combination lever from the bell crank. Six of the E-2bs were rebuilt with "normal" cylinders and the valve gear was altered accordingly, and were reclassed E-2a. The 549 was one of the four not rebuilt, and lasted until 1948. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Photo K-3 4-8-2 No. 201 (Roanoke, 1926) is equipped with the classic triangular-frame direct Baker Valve Gear. The radius or valve rod is connected to the combination lever above the valve stem connection, telling us without otherwise knowing that her valves are inside admission. As would be expected, 201's eccentric crankpins follow the main crankpins. This is the same form of Baker used on all the N&W 2-8-8-2s from Y-2a up and the 5-1 and 5-1a 0-8-0 switchers; all other N&W Baker applications used the long gear frame. (N&W Photo, Ed King Collection)
  Drawing Southern Valve Gear
  Drawing Young Valve Gear
  Photo Southern 5068 at Knoxville, 1950 is an Ss class 2-10-2 with Southern valve gear, shown here in full reverse. Note the absence of a crosshead connection, and the connections of the radius hanger and transmission yoke to the front of the eccentric rod. 129 out of 130 Southern 2-10-2s had Southern valve gear for their entire careers; 5068's sister 5066 was converted to Walschaerts. Until dieselization, Southern 2-1 0-2s including the 5066 and 5068 and the lighter 5200-series Ss-1s were in Bristol daily, sharing the N&W roundhouse with J's and M's and V's. (S. P. Davidson Photo, Ken Marsh Collection)
N&W Freight Roster, 1947 / Part 12 in a series - James F. Brewer
  Photo Roanoke Shops built Class 86 boxcars, beginning in 1944. Note the fishbelly side sill, Youngstown door, and 5-4-1 dreadnaught end. (N&WHS Archive Collection)
  Photo This 8 end view of N&W 43604, a Class 86 boxcar built in 1946, has a 4-4 dreadnaught end arrangement, rather than the 5-4-1 of the earlier constructed cars. Note the retainer, power brake wheel, bottom operated uncoupling lever, and the stirrup steps that radiate out from the car sides. (N&WHS Archive Collection)
  Photo N&W's only USRA design cars were the BK boxcar, built by Pullman in 1919. Originally in number series 120000, many of these cars went to Maintenance of Way service while others received heavy repairs and continued in revenue service. 40021 has been renumbered after receiving heavy repairs at Roanoke Shops. It has been fitted with a new wood- en, rather than steel, door, and retains its stem winder brake wheel. (N&WHS Archive Collection)
  Photo N&W rebuilt numerous freight cars with modern and upgraded features and reclassified them. The B7 boxcars were rebuilt from BS and BSa boxcars. Note how the underframe of the car is inset from the sides of the car. (N&WHS Archive Collection)
  Photo Happy with the Class HC-3 covered hoppers, Roanoke Shops turned out 200 HC-3a cousins. These cars were rated at 70 tons capacity, had four bays, and six hatches on both sides of the roof running board. (N&WHS Archive Collection)
  Photo Roanoke Shops continued producing covered hoppers following the basic design of the Class HC cars which were constructed in 1935. Class HC4 was also rated at 70 tons, but is much shorter and has only two bays and four hatches on both sides of the roof running board. (N&WHS Archive Collection)
Improving the Rivarossi Y6b / A project to make an old standby more prototypical - Kurt Kramke
  Photo Nine photos. No captions. Various photos of the model used to locate details referenced in the article. (Kurt S. Kramke Photos)
The Tennessean / Granddaddy of the Y6b - James Nichols
  Photo No caption. Front view of Y1 #999
Nuggets from the Archives / An inside peek lets you know whatís there - Gordon Hamilton
  Photo First CTC machine built by US&S Co. for N&W Rwy. Circa 1936
The Virginian Local / The Virginian Railway through postcards - Roger Nutting
  Photo "Along the right-of-way" - Postcard images in Virginia and West Virginia captured interesting or unique views found along the Virginian, mostly made during the early years of the railroad. The scene along the New River with the Palisades was a favorite subject.
  Photo "Notable Structures" - The bigger or more unique the better. The spectacular railway bridges over the New River and Black Lick Creek (highest on the line) were very popular, as were the modern elevated coal piers at Sewell's Point near Norfolk.
  Photo "Your local railroad depot or station" - These were always a favorite, especially the ones in the major towns or cities of Norfolk, Victoria, Roanoke, and Princeton and Mullens. The smaller towns had a strong local appeal, and were produced is much smaller quantities or by a local business and are harder to locate. Mining towns and company stores are also of note in producing small quantities of cards that had the local Virginian depot included in them. A unique twist were the multiple image cards, like the one of Brookneal, VA that had the three local train stations and the huge Virginian trestle located east of town.
  Photo "Big Locomotives" - These appealed to the "big power" person. As the Virginian was noted for its obsession in obtaining the biggest and newest locomotives, its big engines were favorite subjects for images on postcards. The massive class AD and AE articulateds, and the powerful EL-Cs all appeared on postcards from the teens and twenties.
In Scale / New products unveiled at recent train shows - George Hughes
  Photo Atlasí Alco Century 425 (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Athearnís Genesis SD70 in NS paint. (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Atlasí Fairbanks-Morse H15/16-44 (Pre-produnction) (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Atlasí high hood GP-40 (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Athearnís Genesis 60 ft. double plug door boxcar. (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Atlasí 4650 cu. Ft. covered hopper (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Bachmann Spectrum Virginian EL-C (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Announcement photo of Bachmann Spectrum 2-6-6-2 (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Stewart Hobbiesí Alco Century C628 (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo Stewart Hobbiesí Alco Century C630 (George Hughes Photo)
  Photo SD70M in 3-rail O scale from MTH (George Hughes Photo)
Vol. 18, No. 6 November / December 2002  Issue Select